Format for a Research Paper - A Research Guide for Students

 

research paper format for high school students

Are you stuck with a research paper outline for a high school? Research papers are quite a challenge, especially for a high school students and we can help you . English II Research Paper Packet Vista Murrieta High School English Department. Research Packet Table of Contents “% of high school students let someone else copy their work in , and % did so in ”-- The State of Americans: This Generation and the Next. Anaheim Union High School District Education Division RESEARCH PAPER FORMAT: A STUDENT GUIDE INTRODUCTION This guide is not about writing; instead, it is a guide for the preparation of any writing that requires the proper citations of sources through research and should be used by students in grades for all classes and all subject.


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This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections.

This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge, research paper format for high school students. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding.

Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standardsand A Framework for K—12 Science Educationthe underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, research paper format for high school students, Methods, Resultsand Discussion.

Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described.

A key part of the scientific process is communication of original results to others so that one's discoveries are passed along to the scientific community and the public for awareness and scrutiny.

Depending upon the researcher's position, intent, and needs, research paper format for high school students, communication can take different forms. The gold standard is writing scientific papers that describe original research in such a way that other scientists will be able to repeat it or to use it as a basis for their studies. Scientists must submit their articles for examination by other scientists familiar with the area of research, who decide whether the work was conducted properly and whether the results add to the knowledge base and are conveyed well enough to merit publication.

However, regardless of whether an article is to be submitted for publication, peer review is an important step in this process. For student researchers, writing a well-organized research paper is a key step in learning how to express understanding, make critical connections, summarize data, and effectively communicate results, which are important goals for improving science literacy of the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards, 4 and A Framework for K—12 Science Education, 5 and the Next Generation Science Standards 6 currently being developed and described in The NSTA Reader's Guide to A Framework for K—12 Science Education.

Scientific papers based on experimentation typically include five predominant sections: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. This structure is a widely accepted approach to research paper format for high school students a research paper, and has specific sections that parallel the scientific method. Following this structure allows the scientist to tell a clear, coherent story in a logical format, essential to effective communication.

While readers may not have time to read the entire research paper, the predictable format allows them to focus on specific sections such as the AbstractIntroductionand Discussion sections. Therefore, it is critical that information be placed in the appropriate and logical section of the report. The Title sends an important message to the reader about the purpose of the paper.

For example, Ethanol Effects on the Developing Zebrafish: Research paper format for high school students and Skeletal Morphogenesis 8 tells the reader key information about the content of the research paper.

Also, an appropriate and descriptive title captures the attention of the reader. When composing the Titlestudents research paper format for high school students include either the aim or conclusion of the research, the subject, and possibly the independent or dependent variables. Often, the title is created after the body of the article has been written, so that it accurately reflects the purpose and content of the article. The Abstract provides a short, concise summary of the research described in the body of the article and should be able to stand alone.

It provides readers with a quick overview that helps them decide whether the article may be interesting to read. Included in the Abstract are the purpose or primary objectives of the experiment and why they are important, a brief description of the methods and approach used, key findings and the significance of the results, research paper format for high school students, and how this work is different from the work of others.

It is important to note that the Abstract briefly explains the implications of the findings, but does not evaluate the conclusions. Often this section is written last to ensure it accurately reflects the content of the paper. Generally, the optimal length of the Abstract is one paragraph between and words, and does not contain references or abbreviations.

All new research can be categorized by field e. Many areas already contain a large volume of published research. The role of the Introduction is to place the new research within the context of previous studies in the particular field and area, thereby introducing the audience to the research and motivating the audience to continue reading.

Usually, the writer begins by describing what is known in the area that directly relates to the subject of the article's research. Clearly, this must be done judiciously; usually there is not room to describe every bit of information that is known. Each statement needs one or more references from the scientific literature that supports its validity.

Students must be reminded to cite all references to eliminate the risk of plagiarism. In doing so, the scientist provides the rationale for the research and further develops why this research is important. The final statement in the Introduction should be a clearly worded hypothesis or thesis statement, as well as a brief summary of the findings as they relate to the stated hypothesis.

Keep in mind that the details of the experimental findings are presented in the Results section and are aimed at filling the void in our knowledge base that has been pointed out in the Introduction.

Research research paper format for high school students various accepted methods to obtain the results that are to be shared with others in the scientific community. The quality of the results, research paper format for high school students, therefore, depends completely upon the quality of the methods that are employed and the care with which they are applied.

The reader will refer to the Methods section: a to become confident that the experiments have been properly done, b as the guide for repeating the experiments, and c to learn how to do new methods. It is particularly important to keep in mind item b.

Since science deals with the objective properties of the physical and biological world, it is a basic axiom that these properties are independent of the scientist who reported them.

Everyone should be able to measure or observe the same properties within error, if they do the same experiment using the same materials and procedures, research paper format for high school students. In science, one does the same experiment by exactly repeating the experiment that has been described in the Methods section.

Therefore, someone can only repeat an experiment accurately if all the relevant details of the experimental methods are clearly described. The following information is important to include under illustrative headings, and is generally presented in narrative form, research paper format for high school students.

A detailed list of all the materials used in the experiments and, if important, their source should be described. These include biological agents e. The reader needs to know as much as necessary about each of the materials; however, it is important not to include extraneous information.

For example, consider an experiment involving zebrafish. The type and characteristics of the zebrafish used must be clearly described so another scientist could accurately replicate the experiment, such as 4—6-month-old male and female zebrafish, the type of zebrafish used e. In addition to describing the physical set-up of the experiment, it may be helpful to include photographs or diagrams in the report to further illustrate the experimental design.

A thorough description of each procedure done in the reported experiment, and justification as to why a particular method was chosen to most effectively answer the research question should also be included. For example, if the scientist was using zebrafish to study developmental effects of nicotine, the reader needs to know details about how and when the zebrafish were exposed to the nicotine e.

The reader would also need to know the concentrations to which the zebrafish were exposed, how the scientist observed the effects of the chemical exposure e. Students must take great care and effort to write a good Methods section because it is an essential component of the effective communication of scientific findings. The Results section describes in detail the actual experiments that were undertaken in a clear and well-organized narrative.

The information found in the Methods section serves as background for understanding these descriptions and does not need to be repeated. For each different experiment, the author may wish to provide a subtitle and, in addition, one or more introductory sentences that explains the reason for doing the experiment. In a sense, this information is an extension of the Introduction in research paper format for high school students it makes the argument to the reader why it is important to do the experiment.

The Introduction is more general; this text is more specific. Once the reader understands the focus of the experiment, the writer should restate the hypothesis to be tested or the information sought in the experiment. It is important to understand whether it affects organisms that are normally found in soil. We decided to use worms as a test organism because they are important members of the soil community.

Because atrazine damages nerve cells, we hypothesized that exposure to atrazine will inhibit the ability of worms to do locomotor activities. In the first experiment, we tested the effect of the chemical on burrowing action. Then, the experiments to be done are described and the results entered. In reporting on experimental design, it is important to identify the dependent and independent variables clearly, as well as the controls. The results must be shown in a way that can be reproduced by the reader, but do not include more details than needed for an effective analysis.

Generally, meaningful and significant data are gathered together into tables and figures that summarize relevant information, and appropriate statistical analyses are completed based on the data gathered. Besides presenting each of these data sources, the author also provides a written narrative of the contents of the figures and tables, as well as an analysis of the statistical significance. In the narrative, the writer also connects the results to the aims of the experiment as described above.

Did the results support the initial hypothesis? Do they provide the information that was sought? Were there problems in the experiment that compromised the results? Be careful not to include an interpretation of the results; that is reserved for the Discussion section.

The writer then moves on to the next experiment. Again, the first paragraph is developed as above, except this experiment is seen in the context of the first experiment. In other words, a story is being developed.

So, one commonly refers to the results of the first experiment as part of the basis for undertaking the second experiment. In order to understand how that might occur, we decided to study its impact on the basic biology of locomotion. Our hypothesis was that atrazine affected neuromuscular junctions.

So, we did the following experiment. The Results section includes a focused critical analysis of each experiment undertaken. A hallmark of the scientist is a deep skepticism about results and conclusions. And then convince me again with even better experiments. Without this basic attitude of doubt and willingness to criticize one's own work, scientists do not get to the level of concern about experimental methods and results that is needed to ensure that the best experiments are being done and the most reproducible results are being acquired.

Thus, it is important for students to state any limitations or weaknesses in their research approach and explain assumptions made upfront research paper format for high school students this section so the validity of research paper format for high school students research can be assessed. The Discussion section is the where the author takes an overall view of the work presented in the article.

First, the main results from the various experiments are gathered in one place to highlight the significant results so the reader research paper format for high school students see how they fit together and successfully test the original hypotheses of the experiment.

Logical connections and trends in the data are presented, as are discussions of error and other possible explanations for the findings, including an analysis of whether the experimental design was adequate. Remember, results should not be restated in the Discussion section, except insofar as it is absolutely necessary to make a point. Second, the task is to help the reader link the present work with the larger body of knowledge that was portrayed in the Introduction.

How do the results advance the field, and what are the implications? What does the research results mean? What is the relevance? Lastly, the author may suggest further work that needs to be done based on the new knowledge gained from the research.

 

Salesian High School :: Research Paper Format

 

research paper format for high school students

 

Lesson 3: Using MLA Format Remind students that a research paper is a presentation of what you have discovered about a topic based on several sources. Say the following and write key words from each Now suppose your high school principal asks you about the movie. Course Overview. The High School Research Writing Course will explore the research process from the prewriting stage to the revision stage. Students will plan and develop one research report, practicing and mastering each step of the research process before moving on to the next step. Are you stuck with a research paper outline for a high school? Research papers are quite a challenge, especially for a high school students and we can help you .